What is framing?

[here author is talking mainly about literary framing not the CL frame]

Republican communications strategist Frank Luntz wrote: ​“communication is functional, the people are the true end, language is just a tool to reach and teach them”.

And yet as people who want to communicate progressive ideas, either at work or at home, we are often met with the frustration of saying the right things, presenting facts and compelling evidence and finding that people don’t come running to support us.

Why aren’t our messages cutting through?

If we want to communicate effectively to shift people’s thinking, we need to start by not only thinking of what we are saying but most importantly how it’s going to be received.

The truth is, human beings are complex, messy and contradictory. We are constantly processing the world around us through a filter of pre-existing beliefs and past experiences,

— source neweconomics.org | Funmibi Ogunlesi | 30 Jan 2023

Nullius in verba


How do you spot a conspiracy theory?

Here are the 7 tell-tale traits of conspiratorial thinking, summarized (& more easily remembered) with the acronym CONSPIR. More details in The Conspiracy Theory Handbook

CONTRADICTORY: Conspiracy theorists can simultaneously believe in ideas that are mutually contradictory. This is because their commitment to disbelieving the “official“ account is so absolute, it doesn’t matter if their belief system is incoherent.

OVERRIDING SUSPICION: Conspiratorial thinking involves a nihilistic degree of skepticism towards the official account. This extreme degree of suspicion prevents belief in anything that doesn’t fit into the conspiracy theory.

4/9 NEFARIOUS INTENT: The motivations behind any presumed conspiracy are invariably assumed to be nefarious. Conspiracy theories never propose that the presumed conspirators have benign motivations.

5/9 SOMETHING MUST BE WRONG: Although conspiracy theorists occasionally abandon specific ideas when they become untenable, those revisions don’t change their overall conclusion that “something must be wrong” & the official account is based on deception.

6/9 PERSECUTED VICTIM: Conspiracy theorists present themselves as victims of organized persecution. At the same time, they see themselves as brave antagonists taking on conspirators. Conspiratorial thinking involves a self-perception of simultaneously being a victim and a hero.

7/9 IMMUNE TO EVIDENCE: Conspiracy theories are self-sealing—evidence countering a theory is reinterpreted as originating from the conspiracy. So the stronger the evidence against a conspiracy (e.g., FBI exonerate politician from allegations of misusing personal email server)…

8/9 …the more the conspirators must want people to believe their version of events (e.g., the FBI was part of the conspiracy to protect that politician).

9/9 RE-INTERPRETING RANDOMNESS: The overriding suspicion found in conspiratorial thinking results in the belief that nothing occurs by accident. Small random events are re-interpreted as being caused by the conspiracy. More details at

— source threadreaderapp.com | John Cook | Mar 19 2020

Nullius in verba