The four levels of racism

At the bottom of the pyramid we have personal racism, sometimes called internalized racism. That’s the collection of prejudices and beliefs that every human being has, whether they are aware of it or not. It includes the feelings of superiority or inferiority, entitlement or exclusion, that are handed to each of us through our culture, upbringing and experience.

At the next level is interpersonal racism, which is the words and deeds of racist individuals. This is where that personal racism bubbles into the world in the form of bias, bigotry, or deliberate abuse. When racism is discussed, especially in the media, it is almost always at this level. When people say they aren’t racist, they usually mean interpersonal racism. This is racism at its most visible, so it’s not surprising that it gets the most attention – but if this is as far as our understanding goes, it won’t get anywhere near solving the problem.

Moving outwards, we come to institutional racism. This is where racial inequality gets locked into the processes of institutions, such as the police, schools or healthcare. It’s not expressed in words and actions here, but in policies or practices that treat people differently, even if that’s entirely unintentional. Racism at this level is more visible in statistics than in words or actions. We can point to a statistical fact and

— source | Jeremy Williams | Dec 9, 2020

Nullius in verba

Punjab farm labourers

Taravanti Kaur is worried. “Whatever little work is available to us now, will also not be there once these farm laws are passed,” she says.

So she has come to the Tikri protest site in west Delhi, from Killianwali village in Punjab. Taravanti and roughly 300 other women are among the 1,500 farm labourers who arrived here on the night of January 7 from various districts of the state – Bathinda, Faridkot, Jalandhar, Moga, Muktsar, Patiala and Sangrur. All of them are members of the Punjab Khet Mazdoor Union, which works on issues related to livelihoods, land rights for Dalits and caste discrimination.

And she is one of the millions of women across India who depend on farmland work for a livelihood – of the 144.3 million agricultural labourers in the country, at least 42 per cent are women.

Taravanti, who is 70 years old, earns Rs. 250-300 a day by labouring on wheat, paddy and cotton fields in her village in in Malout tehsil in Muktsar district. “But there isn’t much work available, as there was before. Labourers have been suffering since the hari kranti [Green Revolution],” she says, referring to the 1960s and after, when, among other agrarian changes, mechanisation of farming became

— source | Sanskriti Talwar | Jan. 21, 2021

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Blacks have more exposure to air pollutants raising heart disease risk, death

Blacks often have higher exposure to air pollution than whites, which may partially explain their higher risk heart disease and death compared to whites, according to new research in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, an American Heart Association journal. Exposure to air pollution is associated with elevated blood sugar levels, poorly functioning blood vessels, heart disease events and death. Previous studies showed chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) — a component of air pollution emitted from vehicles, factories, power plants, fires and second-hand smoke — is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and death. Data also indicates that minorities are more likely to live in areas close to pollution sources, including heavy roadway traffic areas.

— source American Heart Association | Mar 15, 2018

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Fake Caste, Enjoy Privileges

Since 1995, the Maharashtra government had been receiving complaints from representatives of tribal organisations and individuals belonging to Scheduled Tribes about people enjoying the benefits of reservation through forged caste certificates. A government report had underlined that there were over 10 lakh people in Maharashtra alone, who are estimated to have over the past four decades obtained bogus caste certificates. Of these, nearly 50,000 belonging to General and OBC categories reportedly bagged government jobs including civil services and seats in premier institutions across Maharashtra under various quotas designated for underprivileged scheduled castes, STs and denotified communities.

— source | 11 Dec 2020

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Caste Roots of Delhi Violence: A Lesser-Known Phenomenon

The anti-Muslim violence that erupted in Delhi in late February has shaken the country. Analysts are burning midnight oil yet again to understand the deeper causative factors behind the incident. One aspect that is often neglected when Indian scholars examine communal violence is the role of caste in fomenting discord. Caste is an inherent factor in the Hindu scriptures. It has been a rigid part of the Hindu social framework for long and it has penetrated into the practices of other religious communities in India as well.

The deeper connection between Hindu nationalism, or Hindutva, and caste has been explored, but the relationship between communal violence and caste has not been delved into often. Writer-activist Suraj Yengde recently wrote about how many are still “downplaying the Delhi riot as an affliction of Hindutva or Hindu-Muslim binaries. It is neither. It is not religious but caste tensions that encourage such treacherous acts.”

— source | Ram Puniyani | 27 Mar 2020

Nullius in verba